Skip to content Skip to footer


Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Often referred to as “good” or “helpful” bacteria because they help keep the gut healthy, probiotics play a pivotal role in the digestive system by balancing the intestinal flora, thus contributing to overall health and well-being.

This glossary page delves into the definition, types, mechanisms, health benefits, and practical applications of probiotics.

What are probiotics?

Probiotics are a specific type of friendly bacteria that provide numerous health benefits when ingested. These bacteria are naturally found in the human body but can also be boosted by taking dietary supplements or consuming food products that contain probiotics. Common sources include yogurt, sauerkraut, miso soup, and other fermented foods.

Types of probiotics

There are several different types of probiotics, and they belong mainly to two groups:

  • Lactobacillus: this is the most common probiotic and is usually found in yogurt and other fermented foods. Different strains can help with diarrhea and may help people who cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk.
  • Bifidobacterium: found in some dairy products, it may help ease the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other conditions.

Other less common probiotics include the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus probiotics, which are spore-forming bacteria.

How do probiotics work?

Probiotics maintain the health of the gut by ensuring a balance between harmful and beneficial microorganisms. When the balance between these is disturbed by infection, certain diets, or prolonged use of antibiotics, for example, probiotics can help to reset that balance. Mechanisms include:

  • Inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria: production of substances hostile to pathogens.
  • Enhancing immune response: boosting the overall immune system by increasing the production of specific antibodies to pathogens.
  • Strengthening the gut barrier: enhancing the integrity of the mucosal lining of the gut, which helps prevent unwanted substances from entering the body.

Health benefits of probiotics

Research suggests that probiotics are beneficial in managing various gastrointestinal issues, preventing diarrhea caused by infections and antibiotics, and improving symptoms of IBS. They also:

  • Boost the immune system: regular consumption of probiotics can boost the immune system and reduce the incidence and duration of respiratory infections.
  • Mental health: emerging research links gut health to mood and mental health. Probiotics can play a role in promoting a healthy gut, which is connected to a healthy mind.
  • Weight management: some studies suggest that probiotics can help with weight loss and prevent obesity.

Incorporating probiotics into your diet

To incorporate probiotics into your diet, consider the following tips:

  • Consume probiotic-rich foods: include yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, tempeh, and miso in your diet.
  • Supplements: if dietary intake is limited, probiotic supplements can be an effective way to increase your probiotic intake. Always choose high-quality, clinically validated probiotic strains and consult healthcare providers for the best option.
  • Prebiotics: these are fibers that feed the friendly bacteria in the gut. Eating balanced amounts of both prebiotics and probiotics can help ensure that you have the right balance of these microorganisms.

Probiotics offer a plethora of health benefits, particularly related to gut health and immune function. By incorporating probiotic-rich foods or supplements into your diet, you can enhance your body’s overall health and disease resistance. As research evolves, the understanding and application of probiotics will continue to expand, offering new possibilities for improving health and wellness.

Understanding and utilizing probiotics can be a key element in the pursuit of a healthier, longer life, aligning perfectly with the ongoing advancements in nutritional science. Whether through food or supplements, integrating probiotics into daily routines is a proactive approach to maintaining and enhancing gut health.

Leave a comment